## Targeted level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

180 credits

## Duration

3 years

## Training structure

Faculty of Science

## Language(s) of instruction

French

## Presentation

Mention Physics: L1 in the PCSI Portal (Physics, Chemistry, Engineering Sciences)

The Licence de Physique is a three-year course, accessible to students with a scientific baccalaureate, and constitutes the first step in higher education. It allows students to acquire fundamental knowledge in general, theoretical and experimental physics, ranging from classical physics to modern physics, but also in mathematics and computer programming with a progressive specialization in L3 towards Fundamental Physics or Physics and its Applications. The CUPGE Physics and Mathematics program (Cycle Universitaire Préparatoire aux Grandes Écoles) from L1 to L3 offers an in-depth bi-disciplinary training. A brief presentation of the different tracks of the Physics License is available on the website of the Physics License.

## Objectives

The training allows students to progressively acquire mastery of the basic concepts of physics and the use of mathematical and numerical tools to analyze, describe and model a physical system. They develop their critical sense, skills to carry out experimental projects independently and to communicate their results in writing and orally, in French and in English. These are the knowledge, skills and know-how necessary for further study in the Master's courses in Fundamental Physics and Applications in Montpellier or more generally in all Masters in Physics or at the interfaces, in France and abroad. The program also allows students to continue their studies in engineering schools, either by taking a competitive examination or by taking a competitive examination, or to enter the job market directly at the end of the third year of study, for example by taking a competitive examination. At the end of the second year, it is also possible to move on to a short professionalization course by integrating a Licence Pro in L3 such as the L3 Pro Couleur in Montpellier.

The Bachelor of Physics offers three complementary courses:

- Fundamental Physics in L3
**(PF**) intended to give solid knowledge in physics to prepare (but not exclusively) for Masters in fundamental physics. - Physics and Applications in L3
**(PA**) designed to provide the basic knowledge in physics, necessary to approach the technological fields resulting from the applications of physics.

- CUPGE Physics and Mathematics (University Preparatory Cycle for the Grandes Écoles) from L1 to L3, designed to offer in-depth bi-disciplinary training enabling students to pursue a Master's degree in fundamental physics under the best possible conditions or to prepare for certain competitive examinations for the Grandes Ecoles in L3.

## Know-how and skills

Students in the Fundamental Physics program learn to master all the concepts of classical physics (mechanics, optics, thermodynamics, electromagnetism, etc.) and modern physics (quantum mechanics, special relativity, corpuscular physics, etc.) as well as the theoretical formalization of a physical system. In the Physics and Applications program, the deepening of knowledge in L3 is essentially centered on the major fields of applied physics (electronics, energetics, optics, nuclear, acoustics...) and the associated technologies. Finally, the CUPGE Physics and Mathematics course allows students to acquire additional disciplinary skills in Mathematics and in Mechanics, which are necessary to take the competitive exams of certain major engineering schools at the end of the L3.

## Program

In the first year (L1), the students of the Physics Licence are part of the PCSI portal regrouping the Physics, Mechanics, EEA, Physics-Chemistry and Chemistry menus. Students enter the Physics field in the second year (L2) and then specialize in the third year (L3) by choosing the Fundamental Physics or the Physics and Applications pathway.

The CUPGE Physics and Mathematics course is part of the Mathematics and its Applications portal in L1, then students enter the Physics field in L2.

### Select a program

### License 2

In L2 Physics, two courses are possible, L2 Physics and L2 CUPGE Physics and Mathematics which is a reinforced course in Mathematics.

### License 3

The Licence de Physique is a three-year course which constitutes the first stage of higher education. It is accessible to students with a scientific baccalaureate and allows them to acquire fundamental knowledge in general, theoretical and experimental physics, from classical physics to modern physics, but also in mathematics and computer programming with a progressive specialization in L3 towards Fundamental Physics or Physics and its Applications. The CUPGE Physics and Mathematics program (Cycle Universitaire Préparatoire aux Grandes Écoles) from L1 to L3 offers an in-depth bi-disciplinary training. A brief presentation of the different courses of the Physics License can be downloaded here : Presentation of the Physics License.

## General Culture - To be chosen from the list below

## ECTS

2 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Edu ecological transition

## ECTS

2 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## High Frequency Waves for Medical & Health Applications

## ECTS

2 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Introduction to Python programming for analysis and

## ECTS

2 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Discovery of electronics through instrumentation

## ECTS

2 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Nutrition, Sport and Health

## ECTS

2 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Concept Info Tools (PIX)

## ECTS

2 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Experimenting to create - dialogue between art, music and mat

## ECTS

2 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Electrostatics & Magnetostatics

## Level of study

BAC +2

## ECTS

4 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

36h

This course is the first step in the teaching of electromagnetism at the university. Electrostatics, stationary currents and magnetostatics are covered.

See the syllabus in the "More info" tab

## Experimental physics S3

## Level of study

BAC +2

## ECTS

4 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

36h

The two main objectives of Physics are, on the one hand, to better understand -or to better know- the world in which we live, and on the other hand to contribute to the development of techniques and technologies. Its vocation is to elaborate theories and to confront them with experience.

In this module you will perform experiments that will illustrate concepts of mechanics, electricity and thermodynamics that were presented in the^{1st} year undergraduate modules.

## Thermodynamics 2

## Level of study

BAC +2

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

36h

This module completes and formalizes the notions of thermodynamics introduced by the EU Thermodynamics 1, by deepening several aspects: thermodynamic potentials defined from Legendre transformations, thermodynamics of open systems, phase transitions of the pure body and irreversible processes, with incursions at the microscopic level in order to give an overview of the physical foundations of the theory.

## Newtonian Dynamics 2

## Level of study

BAC +2

## ECTS

4 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

36h

This course extends the concepts covered in Newtonian Dynamics 1 to gravitational interaction and more generally to the motion of a material point subjected to a central force. The statics and dynamics of the rigid body are also treated.

## Mathematical tools S3

## Level of study

BAC +2

## ECTS

6 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

54h

This course is a continuation of the mathematics taught in L1. The mathematical tools necessary for the physicist in analysis will be studied, in particular functions of several variables, differential operators, generalized and multiple integrals and sequences and series, including integer and Fourier series.

## Physics of Oscillators

## Level of study

BAC +2

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

36h

*The oscillator is an essential concept in physics: matter is often modeled by a collection of oscillators (harmonic or not) interacting with each other and with the external environment. The latter acts on the matter through a wave, such as an acoustic or electromagnetic wave. This makes it possible to lay the theoretical foundations of the problems of radiation-matter interaction and thus to build one of the fundamental tools for the study of matter (in the broad sense): spectroscopy. *

*Spectroscopy is indeed the basic tool for the study of the physical properties of objects that surround us, such as a molecule, a crystal, a star, a galaxy. These properties are deduced either from their spontaneous emission or from their response to an external excitation. For example we measure the properties of absorption, reflection, transmission of an applied electromagnetic radiation (visible, infra-red, X, neutrons, ...). The response to this radiation is then a way to discover which are the various types of oscillators constituting the studied medium. *

* In short, the study of the physical media that surround us requires the use of two fundamental theoretical tools: oscillators and waves, which are the subject of this course. *

*The principle adopted here is a step-by-step progression from the harmonic oscillator, then from coupled oscillators, to waves treated in the framework of discrete systems: infinite and then finite coupled oscillators with different edge conditions. *

## Wave physics

## Level of study

BAC +2

## ECTS

4 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

36h

The aim of this course is to review various notions of wave physics (D'alembert's equation, progressive waves, standing waves, reflection, transmission) through the study of different physical systems: mechanical (spring, string, acoustic...), electrical (telegraph line, co-axial...) or electromagnetic, and to arrive at a general formalism for the study of linear wave phenomena

Then, in a second time, after having studied the stationary waves it will be a question of studying the interferences (wave tank and other devices) and the physical concepts which are related to them: phase shift, difference of march, condition of constructive interference, destructive interference

## Mathematical tools S4

## Level of study

BAC +2

## ECTS

6 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

54h

This course is a continuation of the mathematical courses of L1 and the^{first} semester of L2. The mathematical tools necessary for the physicist in linear and bilinear algebra will be studied. Then, differential equations and Fourier analysis will be studied. Finally, all the mathematical knowledge acquired in L2 will be used to solve physics problems analytically or with the help of computer tools.

## Experimental Physics S4

## Level of study

BAC +2

## ECTS

4 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

36h

The two main objectives of Physics are, on the one hand, to better understand -or to better know- the world in which we live, and on the other hand to contribute to the development of techniques and technologies. Its vocation is to elaborate theories and to confront them with experience.

In this module you will perform experiments that will illustrate the concepts of geometric optics, electromagnetism and waves that were presented in the^{1st} and^{2nd} year modules.

## ManipLab

## Level of study

BAC +2

## ECTS

2 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

18h

ManipLab is a hands-on discovery module in a physics research laboratory.

These are real experiments, supervised by a researcher and carried out in research laboratories. During these experiments, the students carry out themselves the manipulations, the measurements, and the observations, whether in an experimental, theoretical or simulation field. The goal is that the students leave enriched by the discovery of a laboratory and new notions of physics which will appear more concrete and put in the context of research.

## Personal and Professional Project

## ECTS

2 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Electromagnetism

## Level of study

BAC +2

## ECTS

6 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

54h

The first part of this course aims to consolidate the notions of magnetostatics and to establish the relations of the electromagnetic field at the interface of a plane of charges or current. We also introduce the expression of Laplace forces (force and moment) acting on volumetric or filiform circuits. The second part is devoted to the *properties of fields and potentials in variable regime*. After introducing Faraday's law describing induction phenomena, we establish Maxwell's time-dependent equations. An energetic treatment allows us to define the electric and magnetic energies, as well as the Poynting vector. We apply these concepts to different examples such as electromechanical conversion or induction heating *via* eddy currents. A last chapter is devoted to the *equations of propagation of fields and potentials*, and to their application in vacuum-like systems, as well as in perfect conductors and insulators. The notion of skin depth is also introduced.

## Computer Physics

## Level of study

BAC +2

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

36h

This module constitutes an introduction to the approach of using computer tools in Physics: it is a question of analyzing a phenomenon, of idealizing/modeling it, then of studying it on computer. The critical interpretation of the results is also part of it. The examples are chosen in relation with the other current subjects in the training.

## Electrostatics & Magnetostatics

## Level of study

BAC +2

## ECTS

4 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

36h

This course is the first step in the teaching of electromagnetism at the university. Electrostatics, stationary currents and magnetostatics are covered.

See the syllabus in the "More info" tab

## Experimental physics S3

## Level of study

BAC +2

## ECTS

4 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

36h

The two main objectives of Physics are, on the one hand, to better understand -or to better know- the world in which we live, and on the other hand to contribute to the development of techniques and technologies. Its vocation is to elaborate theories and to confront them with experience.

In this module you will perform experiments that will illustrate concepts of mechanics, electricity and thermodynamics that were presented in the^{1st} year undergraduate modules.

## Thermodynamics 2

## Level of study

BAC +2

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

36h

This module completes and formalizes the notions of thermodynamics introduced by the EU Thermodynamics 1, by deepening several aspects: thermodynamic potentials defined from Legendre transformations, thermodynamics of open systems, phase transitions of the pure body and irreversible processes, with incursions at the microscopic level in order to give an overview of the physical foundations of the theory.

## Algebra III Reduction of endomorphisms

## ECTS

6 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

**This course will cover the notions of symmetric group, determinants and will deal with the reduction of endomorphisms in finite dimension (up to Jordan form) and its applications. It is a first step towards spectral analysis.**

## Analysis III integration and differential equations element

## ECTS

6 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

This course will approach, in the continuity of the analysis course of S2, the notion of series with terms of any sign. The Riemann integral will be defined and applied to treat differential equations, especially linear ones. The integration part will be extended to generalized integrals.

## Dynamics of the Rigid Solid

## Level of study

BAC +2

## Component

Faculty of Science

This unit concerns the study of the mechanics of rigid solids. It is the natural continuation of the unit devoted to the kinematics and statics of rigid solids in L1. In this unit we will place ourselves in a dynamic framework and apply the Fundamental Principle of Dynamics. The writing of this principle requires the knowledge of the torsor of the external actions, studied in L1, but also the knowledge of the dynamic torsor. The latter can be calculated with the help of the kinetic torsor which, for a rigid solid, uses the notion of moment of inertia. The main applications studied in this unit concern the rigid solid or simple cases of articulated systems of rigid solids. In addition, we will study the particular case of contact and friction actions (Coulomb friction) and we will approach the Kinetic Energy Theorem.

## Physics of Oscillators

## Level of study

BAC +2

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

36h

*The oscillator is an essential concept in physics: matter is often modeled by a collection of oscillators (harmonic or not) interacting with each other and with the external environment. The latter acts on the matter through a wave, such as an acoustic or electromagnetic wave. This makes it possible to lay the theoretical foundations of the problems of radiation-matter interaction and thus to build one of the fundamental tools for the study of matter (in the broad sense): spectroscopy. *

*Spectroscopy is indeed the basic tool for the study of the physical properties of objects that surround us, such as a molecule, a crystal, a star, a galaxy. These properties are deduced either from their spontaneous emission or from their response to an external excitation. For example we measure the properties of absorption, reflection, transmission of an applied electromagnetic radiation (visible, infra-red, X, neutrons, ...). The response to this radiation is then a way to discover which are the various types of oscillators constituting the studied medium. *

* In short, the study of the physical media that surround us requires the use of two fundamental theoretical tools: oscillators and waves, which are the subject of this course. *

*The principle adopted here is a step-by-step progression from the harmonic oscillator, then from coupled oscillators, to waves treated in the framework of discrete systems: infinite and then finite coupled oscillators with different edge conditions. *

## Wave physics

## Level of study

BAC +2

## ECTS

4 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

36h

The aim of this course is to review various notions of wave physics (D'alembert's equation, progressive waves, standing waves, reflection, transmission) through the study of different physical systems: mechanical (spring, string, acoustic...), electrical (telegraph line, co-axial...) or electromagnetic, and to arrive at a general formalism for the study of linear wave phenomena

Then, in a second time, after having studied the stationary waves it will be a question of studying the interferences (wave tank and other devices) and the physical concepts which are related to them: phase shift, difference of march, condition of constructive interference, destructive interference

## English S4

## Level of study

BAC +2

## ECTS

2 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

The first-semester course reviews the grammar essential for oral and written communication*(tenses and aspect, asking questions, comparisons and superlatives, passive voice*) as well as essential general vocabulary*(numbers, measurements, shapes*); it also includes an introduction to technical vocabulary*(basic building materials, plane engine, bike parts, electronic device*) through themed lessons and videos in the field of mechanical engineering.

Finally, numerous activities are offered to promote oral expression skills (presentation vocabulary, simulations, role-playing and board games), so that students are able to describe the specific features, functions and uses of a piece of technical equipment of their choice in an oral presentation by groups of two.

**S4**

Grammatical aspects are limited to a review of modal auxiliaries.

The vocabulary is much more focused on the various elements involved in the design and operation of different types of heat engines, and on emerging technologies*(drones, driverless vehicles, 3D-printing*).

Students are also expected to produce a CV in English and practice writing emails in a formal style, so as to be prepared for internship or job-seeking situations where fluency in English will either be necessary or an additional skill.

The practice of expression is always the main objective, with an individual oral presentation at the end of the semester of their second-year project in mechanics.

## Experimental Physics S4

## Level of study

BAC +2

## ECTS

4 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

36h

In this module you will perform experiments that will illustrate the concepts of geometric optics, electromagnetism and waves that were presented in the^{1st} and^{2nd} year modules.

## Analysis IV Sequences of functions, integer series, Fourier

## ECTS

8 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

**This course will cover the concepts of sequences and series of functions and the various convergences. The integer and Fourier series will also be developed.**

## Personal and Professional Project

## ECTS

2 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Electromagnetism

## Level of study

BAC +2

## ECTS

6 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

54h

The first part of this course aims to consolidate the notions of magnetostatics and to establish the relations of the electromagnetic field at the interface of a plane of charges or current. We also introduce the expression of Laplace forces (force and moment) acting on volumetric or filiform circuits. The second part is devoted to the *properties of fields and potentials in variable regime*. After introducing Faraday's law describing induction phenomena, we establish Maxwell's time-dependent equations. An energetic treatment allows us to define the electric and magnetic energies, as well as the Poynting vector. We apply these concepts to different examples such as electromechanical conversion or induction heating *via* eddy currents. A last chapter is devoted to the *equations of propagation of fields and potentials*, and to their application in vacuum-like systems, as well as in perfect conductors and insulators. The notion of skin depth is also introduced.

## Computer Physics

## Level of study

BAC +2

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

36h

This module constitutes an introduction to the approach of using computer tools in Physics: it is a question of analyzing a phenomenon, of idealizing/modeling it, then of studying it on computer. The critical interpretation of the results is also part of it. The examples are chosen in relation with the other current subjects in the training.

## Algebra IV Euclidean spaces

## ECTS

6 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

**This course is an introduction to bilinear algebra and will cover Euclidean and Hermitian spaces. It will deal with isometries, duality, quadratic forms and endomorphisms**.

## The origin of the elements: a cosmic journey

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

2 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

18h

Introduction to the synthesis of chemical elements in the Universe (Big Bang, stars)

## Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

2 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

18h

This optional course introduces the physics concepts used in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. It will allow students to better understand the particular phenomena related to the nanometric scale. It also includes an introduction to the 4 microscopies that allow to observe and measure at this scale: AFM, STM, SEM, TEM

## Physics Computer Science

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

2 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

18h

This optional course focuses on solving physics problems on a computer. It includes the use of the Python language for scientific programming with a special focus on visualization and animation. It offers an introduction to the possibilities offered by numerical physics through different simulations (FDTD simulation of the propagation of a 1D electromagnetic wave, etc.)

## Life Physics

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

2 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

18h

*The course aims to give a first general introduction of physics to the biological sciences and to put in context the use of modern physics concepts, methods and approaches to describe biological systems and their complexity from the molecular to the cellular scale. It is thus necessary to understand the central role of physics for a century now to learn today the principles of organization and dynamics of living and complex matter (from the cell to populations of individuals). At the same time it is necessary to understand that biological systems represent a new opportunity for physicists to learn more about the complexity of living matter and its capacity for self-organization, regulation and control with a view also to new biomimetic applications.*

## Mathematical tools S5

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

6 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

54h

This course is a continuation of the mathematical courses of L1 and the^{first} semester of L2. The mathematical tools necessary for the physicist in integration theory, functional transformations, complex variables and distributions will be presented.

## Analytical and Quantum Mechanics

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

7 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

63h

This UE represents the natural continuation of the UEs of classical Newtonian mechanics.

In the first part of the course, we deal with Classical Mechanics starting from the principle of least action to arrive at two new formulations: the Lagrangian formalism and the Hamiltonian formalism. We study the link between physical symmetries and conservation laws (E. Noether's theorem) and we introduce Poisson's brackets which allow us to write the classical laws of temporal evolution of physical quantities in a form which already prefigures those of quantum mechanics.

In the second part of the course, starting from the examination of the experimental limits of classical mechanics, a new theory of mechanics is introduced: Quantum Mechanics. It is a theory that is conceptually completely different from the previous classical theories, based on a description of physical phenomena in terms of probabilities and therefore no longer deterministic. It is a radical change of paradigm that has shaken up the physics of the last century and has allowed a deeper understanding of physical nature, with fundamental and practical consequences that have radically changed the life of humanity (atomic physics, chemistry, nuclear energy, transistors, LASERS, to name but a few).

## Wave Optics and Electrodynamics

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

7 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

63h

This course is a continuation of the courses on electromagnetism and waves given in L2.

## Experimental physics S5

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

4 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

36h

Practical work in various fields of physics.

The topics covered include the study of mechanical and electrical oscillating systems (simple pendulum, torsion pendulum, coupled pendulums, RLC circuit, inductively coupled circuits), acoustic waves, some notions of wave optics (diffraction and interference), the practical application of electronic circuits for the study of components or electrical systems (diodes, LEDs and photodiodes, transmission line) and the study of some properties of matter (magnetism, photoelectric effect, Faraday effect).

## Statistical Physics

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

5 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

45h

This module is an introduction to the concepts and methods of statistical physics of equilibrium systems with a bottom-up approach: starting with examples and then giving the general principles. It draws heavily on the course by Harvey Gould and Jan Tobochnik. A historical introduction to the construction of the theory of Brownian motion constitutes the last chapter of the course.

## Relativity and Subatomic Physics

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

6 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

54h

The course builds on the knowledge acquired in L1 and L2 to acquire the basics of special relativity (1/3 of the EU) and to offer students a brief introduction to subatomic particle physics (2/3 of the EU). It will thus allow to master an introduction to the description of the intimate structure of matter. After having developed the tools of special relativity necessary to the continuation of the course, we will detail both the study of atomic nuclei (nuclear physics) and that of "elementary" particles (subatomic physics proper). A first description of the standard model of particle physics and of the basic concepts of nuclear physics will be given.

## Experimental Physics S6

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

4 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

36h

The practical work of wave optics studies the phenomena of interference using the Michelson and Fabry-Perot interferometers as an application of a high resolution spectroscopy. (Practical work on Michelson interferometer and Fabry-Perot interferometer)

The phenomena of interference are also recorded in holographic plates for the restitution and the study of holograms (TP holography)

The polarization of light is studied and is used to study birefringent materials (e.g. calcite), liquid crystals, isotropic materials placed under stress (induced birefringence)... (TP birefringence)

The emission of electromagnetic waves by heated bodies is studied in the black body practical exercises. The temperature of different hot bodies is determined with a pyrometer, a spectroscopy and an infrared camera (for the human body for example).

Lasers are also studied, their emission, their longitudinal and transverse modes either on a "fixed" cavity or on an open and adjustable cavity. (TP HeNe laser I and II)

The speed of propagation of an electromagnetic wave modulated in intensity is measured through a measurement of phase shift of its modulation induced by its propagation. (TP speed of light)

Objects are analyzed by Fourier optics which, after filtering, allows certain details to appear or disappear. The study is also compared to digital Fourier filtering (TP strioscopy)

Finally, the property of certain substances, subjected to a magnetic field, to deviate the plane of polarization of the light passing through them is being studied in the Faraday effect TP.

## Hydrodynamics

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

3 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

27h

This course aims at introducing the basics of physical hydrodynamics. The *kinematic aspects* are treated in a first step: Euler and Lagrange formalism, analysis of the motion of an element of fluid volume, introduction of the current and potential velocity functions, and applications to different types of flows. In the next part of *fluid dynamics*, we establish Euler's equation and Bernoulli's relation for the flow of perfect fluids, then the Navier-Stokes equation describing the flow of viscous Newtonian fluids. This part will lead us to define the stress tensor and the Reynolds number to deduce the laminar or turbulent character of a flow. The course ends with an introduction to the *mechanics of deformable solids *: displacement field, expansion and deformation tensor.

## Tutored projects S6

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

4 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

36h

The tutored project is an experimental or digital simulation project carried out in groups of 3 students. It takes place in the practical work room, on one of the many physics and chemistry themes offered. It confronts the students with the project approach, and mobilizes their creativity, their spirit of initiative, their autonomy and their rigor in the experiments. The project concludes with a report and a defense, which is evaluated by peers and then by the jury.

## Simulation Tools

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

3 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

27h

This module will cover selected methods of numerical physics with applications relevant to the Fundamental Physics track. After a review of programming with Python 3, numerical algorithms for solving nonlinear equations, ordinary differential equations and systems of linear equations will be studied. A major part of the module will concern numerical linear algebra and its applications in physics and numerical analysis. Finally, an introduction to systems of formal calculus is included.

## Quantum Mechanics

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

5 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

45h

The basic notions acquired in Quantum Mechanics in semester 5 will be developed in this course. The course is articulated around the following main axes: extension of the wave mechanics formalism, angular momentum theory, hydrogen atom, perturbations, introduction to relativistic quantum mechanics.

## Experimental Physics S5 PA

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

5 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

45h

Practical work in various fields of physics.

The topics covered include the study of mechanical oscillating systems (simple pendulum, torsion pendulum, coupled pendulums), acoustic waves, some notions of wave optics (diffraction and interference), the use of electronic circuits for the study of components or electrical systems (diodes, LEDs and photodiodes, transmission line) and the study of some properties of matter (magnetism, photoelectric effect, Faraday effect).

## The origin of the elements: a cosmic journey

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

2 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

18h

Introduction to the synthesis of chemical elements in the Universe (Big Bang, stars)

## Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

2 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

18h

This optional course introduces the physics concepts used in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. It will allow students to better understand the particular phenomena related to the nanometric scale. It also includes an introduction to the 4 microscopies that allow to observe and measure at this scale: AFM, STM, SEM, TEM

## Physics Computer Science

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

2 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

18h

This optional course focuses on solving physics problems on a computer. It includes the use of the Python language for scientific programming with a special focus on visualization and animation. It offers an introduction to the possibilities offered by numerical physics through different simulations (FDTD simulation of the propagation of a 1D electromagnetic wave, etc.)

## Life Physics

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

2 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

18h

*The course aims to give a first general introduction of physics to the biological sciences and to put in context the use of modern physics concepts, methods and approaches to describe biological systems and their complexity from the molecular to the cellular scale. It is thus necessary to understand the central role of physics for a century now to learn today the principles of organization and dynamics of living and complex matter (from the cell to populations of individuals). At the same time it is necessary to understand that biological systems represent a new opportunity for physicists to learn more about the complexity of living matter and its capacity for self-organization, regulation and control with a view also to new biomimetic applications.*

## Electronics elements

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

4 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

36h

Learning of analog and digital electronics.

For the analog part, the teaching is based on the study and the implementation of the main components of electronics: diodes, transistors and operational amplifiers.

For the numerical part, the basics of sequential logic will be covered.

## Applied Optics

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

4 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

36h

At the beginning of this course, we will review the notions of light rays and the approximation conditions of geometrical optics on the one hand, and on the other hand, the important notions for physical optics in wave physics.

Then from the scalar approximation of light waves, a particular case of electromagnetic waves, we will describe the light sources, the phenomena of interference with 2 waves, N waves and then the diffraction in the Fraunhofer approximation.

We will continue with the study of different physical systems widely used by focusing on their power of resolution and their applications: microscope, telescope, Michelson interferometer, grating spectrometer, Fabry-Perot interferometer.

Finally we will finish with the concepts of spatial coherence and temporal coherence of light waves and their use (stellar interferometry, speckle ...)

## Introduction to quantum physics

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

4 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

36h

This course is a simplified introduction to quantum physics.

We will start with a historical overview of the beginnings of quantum mechanics: atomic emission line spectrum, black body radiation (we will see the logic of this name), photo-electric effect, ...

A simplified presentation of the Fourier transforms will allow us to understand the link between spectral line width and temporal evolution at first,

and further on to understand the Heisenberg inequalities.

An important part of the course will be devoted to matter waves, through the Schrödinger equation, in very simple particular cases.

Finally, we will finish with some aspects of magnetism (necessarily quantum).

## Introduction to Statistical Physics

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

3 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

27h

Statistical physics is one of the fundamental branches of modern physics which, through its probabilistic approach, establishes relations between the microscopic and the macroscopic. It deals with the evolution of systems with a very large number of particles (atoms, molecules, photons, etc.) and links macroscopic quantities such as pressure, temperature, etc. characterizing their state at thermodynamic equilibrium to quantities defining the microscopic state of their constituents. This introductory course in statistical physics will deal with the microcanonical and canonical sets, and will make the link between the partition function and thermodynamic quantities such as average energy, pressure, temperature and entropy. These results will be illustrated on perfect gases and on some simple quantum systems.

## Acoustics - Thermal

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

4 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

36h

This UE is made up of two blocks of 18 hours each (9h CM+ 9h TD).

For the first "acoustic" block, after the establishment of the propagation equation of mechanical vibrations in an infinite medium, the plane wave solutions will be presented. The emphasis will then be put on the notion of scalar potential. The solutions in spherical waves will be presented. A large part will be devoted to the notion of acoustic impedance. The energetic aspects will also be discussed. Various applications (in particular ultrasonic) will be discussed.

The second "thermal" block of the EU consists in studying the heat transport properties in solids and fluids in stationary regime (independent of time). We first define the diffusive and convective heat transfer regimes, and introduce the Fourier equation relating the heat flow to the temperature variation via the thermal conductivity or the conducto-convective coefficient. We then establish the heat propagation equation that we apply to the simple cases of walls and pipes. We then recall the main laws describing heat transfer by radiation (Planck's law, Stefan-Boltzmann's law) and study the case of radiative flux between two bodies under total influence. All this knowledge will be used to perform the heat balance of homogeneous or composite walls, building models, bars and fins. We will also treat the case of heat exchangers.

## Programming for Physics

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

3 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

27h

This UE includes a refresher and deepening of programming techniques as well as an introduction to numerical physics. We will start with a review of procedural programming with the Python 3 language. The use of numerical methods relevant to the simulation and solution of physical problems will then be presented.

## Elasticity and hydrodynamics

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

4 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

36h

This UE is in the continuity of the lessons of dynamics of the point and the rigid solid of L1 and L2. The aim is to give elements of mechanics of deformable continuous media essentially in the limit of small deformations, linear elasticity, viscoelasticity and viscosity. The emphasis is on simple cases and common applications.

## Tutored projects S6

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

4 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

36h

The tutored project is an experimental or digital simulation project carried out in groups of 3 students. It takes place in the practical work room, on one of the many physics and chemistry themes offered. It confronts the students with the project approach, and mobilizes their creativity, their spirit of initiative, their autonomy and their rigor in the experiments. The project concludes with a report and a defense, which is evaluated by peers and then by the jury.

## Elements of Quantum Solid Theory

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

6 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

54h

This UE is composed of two parts. The first part concerns more particularly the Dirac formalism in quantum mechanics with illustrations in the case of the 1D harmonic oscillator and the angular momentum, in particular for the spin. The second part is an introduction to the use of quantum mechanics in solid state physics through its application to semiconductors.

## Structure and Properties of Matter

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

4 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

36h

Classification of solids. Crystalline structures. Energy bands. Metals. Semi-conductors. Insulators. Electrical, dielectric and magnetic properties.

## Radioactivity, Nuclear Energy

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

3 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

27h

Study of the basic principles of the physics of the nucleus in view of concrete applications in everyday life. This course aims at giving the basic elements of nuclear physics in order to present the applications of radioactivity and nuclear energy in the industrial field (Physics of Nuclear Reactors, Fuels), in the medical field (Nuclear Imaging), or in the field of radioprotection (Measuring devices, units...)

## Experimental Physics S6 PA

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

6 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

54h

Practical work and application of analog and digital electronics in connection with the UE HLPH507.

## The origin of the elements: a cosmic journey

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

2 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

18h

Introduction to the synthesis of chemical elements in the Universe (Big Bang, stars)

## Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

2 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

18h

This optional course introduces the physics concepts used in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. It will allow students to better understand the particular phenomena related to the nanometric scale. It also includes an introduction to the 4 microscopies that allow to observe and measure at this scale: AFM, STM, SEM, TEM

## Physics Computer Science

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

2 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

18h

This optional course focuses on solving physics problems on a computer. It includes the use of the Python language for scientific programming with a special focus on visualization and animation. It offers an introduction to the possibilities offered by numerical physics through different simulations (FDTD simulation of the propagation of a 1D electromagnetic wave, etc.)

## Life Physics

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

2 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

18h

*The course aims to give a first general introduction of physics to the biological sciences and to put in context the use of modern physics concepts, methods and approaches to describe biological systems and their complexity from the molecular to the cellular scale. It is thus necessary to understand the central role of physics for a century now to learn today the principles of organization and dynamics of living and complex matter (from the cell to populations of individuals). At the same time it is necessary to understand that biological systems represent a new opportunity for physicists to learn more about the complexity of living matter and its capacity for self-organization, regulation and control with a view also to new biomimetic applications.*

## Analytical and Quantum Mechanics

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

7 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

63h

This UE represents the natural continuation of the UEs of classical Newtonian mechanics.

In the first part of the course, we deal with Classical Mechanics starting from the principle of least action to arrive at two new formulations: the Lagrangian formalism and the Hamiltonian formalism. We study the link between physical symmetries and conservation laws (E. Noether's theorem) and we introduce Poisson's brackets which allow us to write the classical laws of temporal evolution of physical quantities in a form which already prefigures those of quantum mechanics.

In the second part of the course, starting from the examination of the experimental limits of classical mechanics, a new theory of mechanics is introduced: Quantum Mechanics. It is a theory that is conceptually completely different from the previous classical theories, based on a description of physical phenomena in terms of probabilities and therefore no longer deterministic. It is a radical change of paradigm that has shaken up the physics of the last century and has allowed a deeper understanding of physical nature, with fundamental and practical consequences that have radically changed the life of humanity (atomic physics, chemistry, nuclear energy, transistors, LASERS, to name but a few).

## Differential Calculus and Differential Equations

## ECTS

6 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

*In a first part: to deepen the basic notions of differential calculus seen in L2.*

*In a second part: introduce the qualitative study of differential equations.*

## Wave Optics and Electrodynamics

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

7 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

63h

This course is a continuation of the courses on electromagnetism and waves given in L2.

## Experimental physics S5

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

4 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

36h

Practical work in various fields of physics.

The topics covered include the study of mechanical and electrical oscillating systems (simple pendulum, torsion pendulum, coupled pendulums, RLC circuit, inductively coupled circuits), acoustic waves, some notions of wave optics (diffraction and interference), the practical application of electronic circuits for the study of components or electrical systems (diodes, LEDs and photodiodes, transmission line) and the study of some properties of matter (magnetism, photoelectric effect, Faraday effect).

## Fluid mechanics

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

5 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

This first module of Fluid Mechanics aims to provide basic elements on the behavior of industrial fluids (air, water, hydraulic fluid) in order to dimension simple systems involving fluid in static or dynamic (flow rates, pressure, speed, pressure drops,...). Emphasis is placed on the study and design of hydraulic installations.

## Statistical Physics

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

5 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

45h

This module is an introduction to the concepts and methods of statistical physics of equilibrium systems with a bottom-up approach: starting with examples and then giving the general principles. It draws heavily on the course by Harvey Gould and Jan Tobochnik. A historical introduction to the construction of the theory of Brownian motion constitutes the last chapter of the course.

## Relativity and Subatomic Physics

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

6 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

54h

The course builds on the knowledge acquired in L1 and L2 to acquire the basics of special relativity (1/3 of the EU) and to offer students a brief introduction to subatomic particle physics (2/3 of the EU). It will thus allow to master an introduction to the description of the intimate structure of matter. After having developed the tools of special relativity necessary to the continuation of the course, we will detail both the study of atomic nuclei (nuclear physics) and that of "elementary" particles (subatomic physics proper). A first description of the standard model of particle physics and of the basic concepts of nuclear physics will be given.

## Experimental Physics S6

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

4 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

36h

The practical work of wave optics studies the phenomena of interference using the Michelson and Fabry-Perot interferometers as an application of a high resolution spectroscopy. (Practical work on Michelson interferometer and Fabry-Perot interferometer)

The phenomena of interference are also recorded in holographic plates for the restitution and the study of holograms (TP holography)

The polarization of light is studied and is used to study birefringent materials (e.g. calcite), liquid crystals, isotropic materials placed under stress (induced birefringence)... (TP birefringence)

The emission of electromagnetic waves by heated bodies is studied in the black body practical exercises. The temperature of different hot bodies is determined with a pyrometer, a spectroscopy and an infrared camera (for the human body for example).

Lasers are also studied, their emission, their longitudinal and transverse modes either on a "fixed" cavity or on an open and adjustable cavity. (TP HeNe laser I and II)

The speed of propagation of an electromagnetic wave modulated in intensity is measured through a measurement of phase shift of its modulation induced by its propagation. (TP speed of light)

Objects are analyzed by Fourier optics which, after filtering, allows certain details to appear or disappear. The study is also compared to digital Fourier filtering (TP strioscopy)

Finally, the property of certain substances, subjected to a magnetic field, to deviate the plane of polarization of the light passing through them is being studied in the Faraday effect TP.

## Hydrodynamics

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

3 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

27h

This course aims at introducing the basics of physical hydrodynamics. The *kinematic aspects* are treated in a first step: Euler and Lagrange formalism, analysis of the motion of an element of fluid volume, introduction of the current and potential velocity functions, and applications to different types of flows. In the next part of *fluid dynamics*, we establish Euler's equation and Bernoulli's relation for the flow of perfect fluids, then the Navier-Stokes equation describing the flow of viscous Newtonian fluids. This part will lead us to define the stress tensor and the Reynolds number to deduce the laminar or turbulent character of a flow. The course ends with an introduction to the *mechanics of deformable solids *: displacement field, expansion and deformation tensor.

## Tutored projects S6

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

4 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

36h

The tutored project is an experimental or digital simulation project carried out in groups of 3 students. It takes place in the practical work room, on one of the many physics and chemistry themes offered. It confronts the students with the project approach, and mobilizes their creativity, their spirit of initiative, their autonomy and their rigor in the experiments. The project concludes with a report and a defense, which is evaluated by peers and then by the jury.

## Simulation Tools

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

3 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

27h

This module will cover selected methods of numerical physics with applications relevant to the Fundamental Physics track. After a review of programming with Python 3, numerical algorithms for solving nonlinear equations, ordinary differential equations and systems of linear equations will be studied. A major part of the module will concern numerical linear algebra and its applications in physics and numerical analysis. Finally, an introduction to systems of formal calculus is included.

## Quantum Mechanics

## Level of study

BAC +3

## ECTS

5 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

## Hourly volume

45h

The basic notions acquired in Quantum Mechanics in semester 5 will be developed in this course. The course is articulated around the following main axes: extension of the wave mechanics formalism, angular momentum theory, hydrogen atom, perturbations, introduction to relativistic quantum mechanics.

## Complex Analysis

## ECTS

6 credits

## Component

Faculty of Science

*Introduce the basic tools of complex analysis.*